The basis of biometric technology is the measurement of unique, inherent to particular personal characteristics. Biometric security systems are applied wherever there is a need for personal identification where control of access to material objects or information is required.
Security tools based on voice recognition are widely used in remote customer service. The main advantage of the method is the protection of personal data from intruders (no account number, password and other information are required).
Identity verification is increasingly carried out by scanning the iris, which is as individual as fingerprints. The main disadvantage is the high cost.
Fingerprint recognition is considered the most effective method of biometrics - because of its reliability, this method is used most often. Its reliability is based on the uniqueness of papillary patterns (they differ even in twins). Authentication (authentication of identity), as a rule, does not exceed seconds. According to statistics, the biometric fingerprint identification system is superior to signature recognition, voice recognition and face recognition.
Personal identification methods can be based on recognizing the shape of a skull and facial features. 2D face recognition is considered unreliable and is significantly inferior to other methods. 3D recognition is much more efficient, but equipment costs are prohibitively expensive.
The method of scanning the retina is gradually becoming a thing of the past - some eye diseases can distort the picture, the process takes a lot of time and creates a certain discomfort.
Vein identification tools are not inferior in the reliability of iris scanning or fingerprinting - the main disadvantage is the distortion of information in case of arthritis and other age-related diseases. The method of recognition by hand geometry is practically not used today (due to lack of accuracy).
Automatic methods of checking to handwrite provide a good result, but they have a rather narrow scope of application and, as a rule, are used in combination with other means.
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F.A.Q about Biometric Identification
What is Biometric Identification?
Biometric identification answers the question “who are you” and can be applied to both physical and digital scenarios. It is an established solution that is being used in many applications including law enforcement, defense, and border control.
Biometric identification usually applies to a situation where an organization needs to identify a person. The organization captures a biometric from that individual and then searches a biometric repository in an attempt to correctly identify the person. The biometric repository could be managed by a law enforcement agency, such as the Integrated Automated Fingerprint System (IAFIS) run by the FBI in the USA, or be part of a national identity system like India’s UIDAI system.
In the case with IAFIS, the FBI manages a repository that contains fingerprints, facial images, and other physical characteristics, including height, weight, hair, eye color, and even scars and tattoos. The database has more than 70 million criminal records alongside 34 million civil records that law enforcement agents have available on a 24x7x365 basis.
This system is a vital tool in assisting law enforcement agents with their criminal investigations by matching captured biometrics against a repository of known criminals. In this example, matching a captured biometric against a central repository is called a one-to-many match, as the biometric is not indexed.