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GIS - Geographic information system

GIS - Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data. Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D scenes. ​With this unique capability, GIS reveals deeper insights into data, such as patterns, relationships, and situations — helping users make smarter decisions.

GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. GIS (more commonly GIScience) sometimes refers to geographic information science (GIScience), the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems. Since the mid-1980s, geographic information systems have become valuable tool used to support a variety of city and regional planning functions.

GIS can refer to a number of different technologies, processes, techniques and methods. It is attached to many operations and has many applications related to engineering, planning, management, transport/logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business. For that reason, GIS and location intelligence applications can be the foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on analysis and visualization.

GIS can relate unrelated information by using location as the key index variable. Locations or extents in the Earth space–time may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, and x, y, and z coordinates representing, longitude, latitude, and elevation, respectively. All Earth-based spatial–temporal location and extent references should be relatable to one another and ultimately to a "real" physical location or extent. This key characteristic of GIS has begun to open new avenues of scientific inquiry.

Geographic Information Systems are powerful decision-making tools for any business or industry since it allows the analyzation of environmental, demographic, and topographic data. Data intelligence compiled from gis software applications help companies and various industries, and consumers, make informed decisions.

Mapping. GIS can be used to provide a visual interpretation of data. Google Maps is an excellent example of a web-based GIS mapping solution that people use for everyday navigation purposes.

Telecom and Network Services. Organizations can incorporate geographic data into their complex network design, optimization, planning, and maintenance activities. This data enhances telecom processes through better customer-relationship management and location services.

Environmental Impact Analysis. Data gathered via GIS program is vital for conserving natural resources and protecting the environment. Impact statements assess the magnitude of human impact on the environment, which GIS integration helps indicate.

Agricultural Applications. Geo informatic system data helps create more efficient farming techniques, alongside analyzing soil data in an advanced fashion. This can increase food production in different parts of the world.

Navigation. Web-based navigation maps use geo info systemsdata to provide the public with useful information. Web maps are regularly updated per GIS information and are used consistently in everyday life.

Banking. Banking has evolved to become market-driven, and a bank’s success depends mainly on its ability to provide customer-driven services. GIS data plays an essential role in planning, organizing, and decision making in the banking industry.

Planning and Community Development. GIS data helps us understand and meet global challenges. As GIS technology rapidly advances, there are various innovative applications in the planning sector. GIS tools can be used to integrate geographic intelligence into planning processes, and have the potential to change how we think and behave.

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F.A.Q. about GIS - Geographic information system

How does GIS work?

GIS technology applies geographic science with tools for understanding and collaboration. It helps people reach a common goal: to gain actionable intelligence from all types of data.

  • Maps: maps are the geographic container for the data layers and analytics you want to work with. GIS maps are easily shared and embedded in apps, and accessible by virtually everyone, everywhere.
  • Data: GIS integrates many different kinds of data layers using spatial location. Most data has a geographic component. GIS data includes imagery, features, and basemaps linked to spreadsheets and tables.
  • Analysis: spatial analysis lets you evaluate suitability and capability, estimate and predict, interpret and understand, and much more, lending new perspectives to your insight and decision-making.
  • Apps: apps provide focused user experiences for getting work done and bringing GIS to life for everyone. GIS apps work virtually everywhere: on your mobile phones, tablets, in web browsers, and on desktops.

What are the benefits benefits of Geographic Information Systems?

Many different types of information can be compared and contrasted using GIS. The geo information services can include data about people, such as population, income, or education level. It can include information about the landscape, such as the location of streams, different kinds of vegetation, and different kinds of soil. It can include information about the sites of factories, farms, and schools, or storm drains, roads, and electric power lines.

With GIS technology, people can compare the locations of different things in order to discover how they relate to each other. For example, using GIS, a single map could include sites that produce pollution, such as factories, and sites that are sensitive to pollution, such as wetlands and rivers. Such a map would help people determine where water supplies are most at risk.

What is GIS Mapping Software?

Geographic information software lets you produce maps and other graphic displays of geographic information for analysis and presentation. With these capabilities a GIS is a valuable tool to visualize spatial data or to build decision support systems for use in your organization.

A GIS stores data on geographical features and their characteristics. The features are typically classified as points, lines, or areas, or as raster images. On a map city data could be stored as points, road data could be stored as lines, and boundaries could be stored as areas, while aerial photos or scanned maps could be stored as raster images.

Application of Geographic Information Systems

GIS can be used as tool in both problem solving and decision making processes, as well as for visualization of data in a spatial environment.  Geospatial data can be analyzed to determine (1) the location of features and relationships to other features, (2) where the most and/or least of some feature exists, (3) the density of features in a given space, (4) what is happening inside an area of interest , (5) what is happening nearby some feature or phenomenon, and (6) and how a specific area has changed over time (and in what way).